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Investing amplifier gain proofpoint

investing amplifier gain proofpoint

Using this platform, we can achieve the distinct features of no An amplitude control circuit consisting of wideband variable gain amplifier and high. , Non-inverting differential amplifier with configurable common-mode output signal and reduced common-mode gain. The difficulty of inverting the exponention (the discrete log problem) is what + The "Ideal Mix" is worth considering, just as the "ideal op amp" is. TOP FOREX BROKERS ECN

For as long as elections have existed, foreign powers have attempted to influence them, overtly or covertly, in order to help or hinder one candidate partisan electoral intervention or simply to weaken the democratic process itself, irrespective of who wins process electoral intervention. The internet has made it easier to publish fake stories, and social media have made it easier to spread false stories.

Another part of the explanation is geopolitical. In most of these cases, Russia stands accused. Moscow considers its actions to be defensive. It considers itself the victim of an information war waged by the West, especially by the United States. In , the Russia Today TV channel was renamed RT and shifted its approach from promoting Russia, which was unsuccessful, to discrediting the adversary. Photo source: Reuters of the Taiwanese election, for instance, China is suspected.

Not only did it concern the election of the head of a powerful state—the only nuclear power and permanent member of the United Nations UN Security Council in Europe after Brexit—but also, and above all, it failed. In , the first round took place on April 23, selecting the top two candidates out of eleven: Emmanuel Macron, thirty-nine, a centrist, liberal, and pro-European former economy minister who created his independent movement, En Marche!

The second round between them took place on May 7. This leak was promoted on Twitter by an army of trolls and fake accounts bots with the hashtag MacronLeaks—even though none of the leaked documents actually came from Macron, only various sources related to him. Macron defeated Le Pen.

The legislative elections that took place in June gave him a clear majority, with his En Marche! Many journalists, especially in France, also contributed greatly to our understanding of what was happening. The reader will find all these references in the footnotes. Two years later, this report does not pretend to reveal something new. With the benefit of hindsight, it will explore what happened, who likely orchestrated the affair, how it was successfully countered, and what lessons can be learned.

In conclusion, it will also explain what France has accomplished since then and what is yet to be done. This operation could not sway French voters and change the result. Some sources say 15 GB, others 9. Both are right: 9. Congratulations to French people for choosing Liberty, Equality and Fraternity over tyranny of fake news.

More detailed explanation to come As Macron overtook him in the polls and appeared to have a viable shot at the presidency, he became the target of more aggressive and more organized attacks from two sources: the Kremlin media RT and Sputnik and the American alt-right.

His announcement was immediately spread by the French outlets of RT and Sputnik. They find the right people, make them talk about Macron, and then pick and choose the juiciest quotations. In this instance, they had interviewed Nicolas Dhuicq, a pro-Russian, right-wing French member of parliament. They visited Syria and met with President Bashar al-Assad several times. In May it spread across Twitter and has been regularly used by his political opponents ever since. Quotations provide an illusion of truth and journalistic integrity.

Sputnik used the same method and the same defense a few days later, on February 9, when the outlet published an article claiming that French journalists in Moscow had been seen wearing En Marche! These allegations were proved false: none of the three correspondents present at the En Marche! Sputnik did use quotation marks, but it did not check the claim, nor did it interview a representative from En Marche! Sputnik just took the claim at face value, and to illustrate this point it even posted a photo of a group of people wearing En Marche!

However, these people happened to be the En Marche! Fillon was initially the favorite in the polls: this affair ruined his chance to win the presidency. She was also under investigation for posting three graphic images from the Islamic State on Twitter, including the beheading of an American journalist—another affair over which the European Parliament lifted her immunity in early March It has published unbalanced reports, giving one side of the story and leaving the other silent.

Some attacks against Macron came from the West. Others were personal, including salacious remarks about the age difference between him and his wife, rumors that he was having an affair with his stepdaughter, and speculation over his sexuality. We demand transparency! Their main activity was to help users create fake Facebook and Twitter accounts. Better yet, create everything in English, post in the thread and ask a national to translate it.

Most of them were 4chan users. Not only American alt-right and French far-right but also more generally the international alt-right. They have to feel Macron is a bad choice. You do this publicly on your social media accounts we have some memes you can use below.

He plans to re-write history with Muslim countries to teach French children Islam was always part of France. This is cultural genocide. He has secret accounts in the Cayman Islands. He and his team have been rigging elections. Lied About Tax Evasion? Macron, that you have an offshore account in the Bahamas. This obviously makes attribution more difficult, but it is probably closer to reality.

The French media has been deleting right-wing content and Facebook has been colluding to delete right-wing commentators for the past 72 hours. They are not interesting for themselves, as these pages are ephemeral and their users quite mobile. They seek to protect their confidentiality and are aware of the attention they attract not only from intelligence services but also from journalists, who sometimes manage to infiltrate and expose them. What is interesting is the fact that such communities, on Discord, Reddit or elsewhere, are intersections among several communities of interest.

They are a venue where American alt-right, French far-right, and other pro-Kremlin actors can meet. Two hours before the final televised debate between Macron and Le Pen, on Wednesday, May 3, at p. The documents suggested that Macron had a company registered in Nevis, a small Caribbean island, and a secret offshore bank account at the First Caribbean Bank, based in the Cayman Islands.

Again, the rumor itself was not entirely new. Macron himself had seen it coming. Macron has a hidden account in a tax haven, he has money hidden at this or that place. The first tweets in French seemed to have been automatically translated from English. Then the rumor spread on Twitter. The 4chan link was first posted by Nathan Damigo, founder of the American neo-Nazi and white-supremacist group Identity Evropa, and was further circulated by William Craddick, founder of Disobedient Media and notorious for his contribution to the Pizzagate conspiracy theory that targeted the US Democratic Party during the American presidential campaign.

The first real amplifier was Jack Posobiec—an American alt-right and pro-Trump activist with , followers at the time: his tweet was retweeted almost 3, times. Only after p. It started with a series of phishing attacks. This is very big, folks. CEST Photo credit: Twitter asking them to click on links with seemingly cloud data storage or webmail domains onedrive-en-marche. Other techniques included tabnabbing53 or email spoofing. Our experts have implemented detailed recommendations against piracy.

You will find the document attached. The email has a link to a URL that looks very legitimate. When the target reads his email and clicks on the link, it will open in a new tab. The target is likely to spend some time browsing this legitimate site. Distracted, he probably did not notice that just before the redirection, a simple script was run, changing the original webmail tab to a phishing site.

When the target has finished reading the news article or conference information on the legitimate site, he returns to the tab of his webmail. He is informed that his session has expired and the site needs his credentials again. He is then likely to reenter his password and give his credentials away to the attackers.

Mahjoubi acknowledged that the En Marche! It is not economically feasible to fabricate the whole. We are now checking parts. Between midnight on Friday and p. At p. Then came their appearance on Twitter: Craddick was again the first to share the link to the PasteBin dump at p. Photo credit: Twitter what would later become a widespread misconception, Posobiec was not the first to tweet, Craddick was. However, Posobiec was the first to use the hashtag that would lend its name to the entire operation, hence the confusion.

This makes it clear that the hashtag MacronLeaks was launched and spread in the United States, by the American alt-right. It was WikiLeaks that internationalized the spread, at p. Only then came the first French amplifiers, who happened to be Le Pen supporters. Only two of them made it into the ten most-popular tweets, though: Florian Philippot, vice president of the National Front Party his p.

On the contrary, it is a very diverse galaxy which could largely exist without any kind of action from Russia. As a matter of fact, as Nimmo guessed before the vote, this widespread campaign on Twitter failed to reshape the French political landscape. At that time Macron was a twenty-five-year-old student and had nothing to do with either Gemplus or Takkieddine. This unrelated folder, with an intentionally misleading title, was enough to trigger fanciful rumors, such as one claiming that, through Takkiedine, Macron was actually working with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant ISIS!

The Macron Leaks operation is a classic illustration of such a cycle. Second, it was brought to mainstream social networks like Twitter. According to his analysis: Many bot accounts that supported alt-right narrative in the context of MacronLeaks were originally created shortly prior to the US presidential election and used to support the same views in the context of American politics.

The accounts went dark after November 8, , only to re-emerge at the beginning of May to push MacronLeaks, attack Macron, and support the far-right candidate Marine Le Pen. This corroborates a recent hypothesis about the existence of black markets for reusable political botnets.

Contact editor gotnews. WikiLeaks ranked as the number one most influential user. The intent behind the timing is curious. Some of these accounts were deactivated as early as one week after the election: one hundred seventy accounts were suspended by Twitter, and were self-deleted or renamed by the user.

As early as May 6, , half a day after the leak was released, an En Marche! Thanks for your cooperation. With the MacronLeaks even our personal emails have been made public: we are the only ones to have reached this level of transparency! Everything is clear and has been validated by the authorities. There were three distinct dimensions to the operation: the disinformation campaign composed of rumors, fake news, and forged documents , the hack, and, finally, the leak.

It is then no surprise that, as early as February , the En Marche! Then, this news is spread, quoted, and assumes a role in the life of our democracy. And coincidentally these come from within Russian borders. It is now interfering in the French presidential campaign and it is not normal. The goal is to infiltrate our databases and our mailboxes in order to hack them.

That was particularly clear on digital platforms. A research unit96 analyzed a corpus of four hundred-thousand tweets unambiguously attacking Macron, posted between February 1 and May 6. Time zone analysis indicates that most of them came from abroad, in particular North America.

The same address has been used to register three other cloned websites: indepnedent. As for the MacronGate rumor, the Bulgarian investigative website Bivol, which analyzed the metadata of the two fake PDFs, showed they were last modified at a. The French scene will be at nouveaumartel. For this reason, Martel is commonly invoked by the French far-right movements. At the time this leaker posted the link, the nouveaumartel. However, an investigation showed that it shared the technical infrastructure of The Daily Stormer, one of the main American neo-Nazi websites.

The tech administrator of nouveaumartel. However, it is much more difficult to determine responsibility for the hack itself, which resulted in the theft of gigabytes of data. In any cyberattack, attribution is a complex and sensitive issue.

Take, for instance, the fake domains used for at least some of the phishing attacks onedrive-en-marche. Some operations are so compartmentalized that people in one part of it may not know for whom or what they work ultimately. Attribution is a puzzle with a lot of unknowns. It is, ultimately, a political decision, based on technical elements, but most of the time without certainty.

Some states, like the United States, and consequently their Five Eyes allies, are not hesitant to attribute. Others, like France, are more prudent. Other nonstate actors, however, have not been so coy. In , the American cybersecurity firm FireEye attributed responsibility for the cyberattack against TV5Monde to them.

We found similarities in the IP addresses and malware used in the attacks. At least one of these domains was hosted at the IP However, a method indeed but not solely employed by Fancy Bear does not give any certainty regarding attribution. The cybersecurity experts of the ThreatConnect research team established that the four spoofed domains were registered using the email address johnpinch mail.

We were unable to attribute them and that is what this report does, it confirms the intuition we have had since February. First, the email address initially used to upload the files on Archive. Petersburg-based information technology company Evrika ZAO. It could have been a false-flag operation intended to misdirect and falsely incriminate Moscow.

Unfortunately, Marine did not become president. I know how to do this. National security conservative. Veteran Intel Officer. He was indeed the first to use the hashtag MacronLeaks but not the first to break the story. In the case of the MacronGate on May 3, Nathan Damigo and his neo-Nazi network were the first to break the story, then Craddick, and then only Posobiec who, with eleven times more followers, amplified it. Therefore, Posobiec is interesting to the extent that he was the first amplifier.

Indeed, there are reasons to believe that Craddick was not only the first to break the story, but actually the one who posted the files on 4chan — or if not him personally, someone working with him. Servers are down ATM. And, 15 minutes later, he was the first to tweet them. Thus far, the available evidence does lean conspicuously towards Moscow.

We only have circumstantial evidence. I would be very cautious at this point to try to make any strong attribution claims. They acknowledge, however, that the available evidence in this case points toward Russia. This is no surprise. France is known to be fertile ground for Russian influence. One month before the election, Le Pen traveled to Moscow to meet with Putin. She claimed it was their first meeting but it was their third. In April , a few weeks before the French election, she traveled to Paris and offered her triptych to Le Pen, who hung it in her headquarters.

But that did not stop some in the Macron team from doing so. The person, or persons, behind the MacronGate may be an American neo-Nazi, possibly Andrew Auernheimer, and William Craddick seems to be the 4chan poster of the leaks. Moreover, those leaks were amplified mostly from the US. On the day of the MacronLeaks spike, the amount of traffic coming out of the United States nearly equaled that from France Due to their convergence of interests, there may have been a de facto alliance between them.

However, an interesting lead to investigate, as it may be the link between those two sides, is where Craddick got the files from. Stay well and safe. Much more bass extension and power with no fatigue. The highs are so sweet. Congratulations on a magnificent achievement. I have no doubt that a lot of heart and soul went into creating this musical instrument that will provide years of enjoyment and satisfaction for me. You sir are one helluva audio engineer! But I do love music, and my music has never sounded this good.

I was skeptical, and a little worried. As this was my biggest single purchase in my music gear. At first I was not too impressed, was wondering what the deal was. Well not anymore, not sure if it was late and I was tired or what.

Today I have been listening to music all day, I started at 10am, it has been pure bliss! This amazing little black box is music magic! I have only about 50 hours or so on the phono pre, but I simply love it. I'm not an engineer nor am I particularly technically inclined but the insertion of this component into my system has already elevated it by a full step. Really amazing. Even at 50 hours the sonics are so. I've heard that you spend a lot of time and effort with exact matching and selecting of your components, and I hear it in the sonics.

Probably no amount of tweakery would be enough to elevate my old PH3-SE to this level. Or should I say realm. Whatever you want to call the place the rest cannot go. I used the phono stage VTPH-2A upgrade first on its own last Saturday, and then added on the last night, after running another pre-amp for a bit.

With the phono stage I noticed more three-dimensionality and more upper mids and high end. With the , the result was holy expletive deleted!! I couldn't believe it. You have really outdone yourself with the When I find a component that makes me want to hear more, that is special to me. Most pieces of equipment don't do that. But the did it. Even an old mono Angel from the 50's sounded great solo piano and a DGG from the 70's sounded like an audiophile recording. I thought I had pretty good sound before, but this is just beyond.

If you don't sell lots of the , there is something wrong with the audio world. It sounds the best I have heard here at home. I appreciate your efforts and hope more people discover what you have to offer.

With the other phono preamps listening often became a battle with the equipment; fussing, tweaking everything trying to get the sound qualities I craved. All those superlative adjectives about the sound- yes! I'm hearing music in a way that I've never experienced from ANY system, headphone or speaker, in any price range. Musicality, detail, dynamics, and 3D imaging are all pegged at "11" out of I listened until AM in the morning! Just wanting to hear all my favorites again for the first time.

I'm fearful for what this comparison will yield, since I remember the VAC beating the Rogue Ares by less than the Rogue got clobbered in last night's listening and really the Ares is a fine phono stage in its own right. Wish I'd heard your phono stage a year ago. Thanks so much for all you do, and have a great weekend! I'll be in touch again soon.

BTW the titanium gray finish is really gorgeous. The Herron blew open their potential. Musicality, detail, dynamics, and 3D soundstage all pegged to "11" out of No SUT ratios to mess with, either. There's a distinct possibility I'll own two of these soon. Any of you guys curious or on the fence - just call Keith now, just do it. You really hit a home run with this one. It sounded great out of the box without any loading with my Helikon stereo cart. I played the albums I knew very well.

During each jump in price I made with the previous stages, I found they offered more. Some more detail, others better bass or staging. You get the idea. The Herron hits on all of them. It leaves nothing out. Each aspect of what you want in a sound stage the Herron delivers in spades. As I went through each album, I swore the other stages had opened them up and allowed me to hear all the album had to offer.

I did not think there could be anything else hidden, no new instruments or nuances going on that I never heard before. Boy was I dead wrong on this. In fact it may be the biggest thing that continues to catch me off guard and gets that smile going from ear to ear. I have ZERO regret and can now absolutely, positively cross off the phono stage as my upgrading days for that piece of gear are done.

I have no interest in hearing anything else. Thank you Mr. Keith Herron for making one incredible piece of musical equipment. It is worth every bit of the asking price if you are into vinyl. I've primarily played vinyl that I've had for decades, music that I thought I was intimately familiar with.

I was wrong. There's nuance I never knew existed. The bass is tight, vocals superb, instruments have places, etc. All that I've listened to sounds new and fresh and the most masterfully recorded vinyl sounds live. It's a bad ass and definitely a keeper. I've listened to vinyl for more than 50 years and have never heard vinyl playback as good as my current set-up can produce.

Does it have tubes and do tubes "color" sound? Yes and yes. But there's a reason some prefer the Mona Lisa over a photo from a smart phone. One represents soul and character while the other is an accurate digital representation.

The Herron is designed and built by master artists with genius level expertise of what makes music a dynamic, emotional experience - it's soul. All too often solid state equipment can measure up with specifications, but can't quite get it when it comes to putting a smile on your face or a tear in your eye. This one is a keeper! Bravo Herron! It takes time to break in. It adds impressive presence to music of all kinds without loosing detail.

Very smooth over the entire audio spectrum. It is very easy to set up.

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The firm invests in growth-oriented, innovative companies operating in the software and technology sectors. The firm has offices in Chicago, Miami and San Francisco. For more information, visit thomabravo. All forward-looking statements by their nature address matters that involve risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control, and are not guarantees of future results, such as statements about the anticipated benefits of the transaction.

These and other forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future results and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions that could cause actual results to differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. Accordingly, there are or will be important factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from those indicated in such statements and, therefore, you should not place undue reliance on any such statements and caution must be exercised in relying on forward-looking statements.

These risks, as well as other risks associated with the transaction, are more fully discussed in the proxy statement filed with the U. Securities and Exchange Commission in connection with the transaction. While the list of factors presented here is, and the list of factors presented in the proxy statement is, considered representative, no such list should be considered to be a complete statement of all potential risks and uncertainties.

So, In case of inverting op-amp, there are no current flows into the input terminal, also the input Voltage is equal to the feedback voltage across two resistors as they both share one common virtual ground source. Due to the virtual ground, the input resistance of the op-amp is equal to the input resistor of the op-amp which is R2. This R2 has a relationship with closed loop gain and the gain can be set by the ratio of the external resistors used as feedback. As there are no current flow in the input terminal and the differential input voltage is zero, We can calculate the closed loop gain of op amp.

Learn more about Op-amp consturction and its working by following the link. Gain of Inverting Op-amp In the above image, two resistors R2 and R1 are shown, which are the voltage divider feedback resistors used along with inverting op-amp. R1 is the Feedback resistor Rf and R2 is the input resistor Rin. Op-amp Gain calculator can be used to calculate the gain of an inverting op-amp. Practical Example of Inverting Amplifier In the above image, an op-amp configuration is shown, where two feedback resistors are providing necessary feedback in the op-amp.

The resistor R2 which is the input resistor and R1 is the feedback resistor. The input resistor R2 which has a resistance value 1K ohms and the feedback resistor R1 has a resistance value of 10k ohms. We will calculate the inverting gain of the op-amp. The feedback is provided in the negative terminal and the positive terminal is connected with ground.

Now, if we increase the gain of the op-amp to times, what will be the feedback resistor value if the input resistor will be the same? As the lower value of the resistance lowers the input impedance and create a load to the input signal. In typical cases value from 4. When high gain requires and we should ensure high impedance in the input, we must increase the value of feedback resistors.

But it is also not advisable to use very high-value resistor across Rf. Higher feedback resistor provides unstable gain margin and cannot be an viable choice for limited bandwidth related operations. Typical value k or little more than that is used in the feedback resistor. We also need to check the bandwidth of the op-amp circuit for the reliable operation at high gain. One important application of inverting op-amp is summing amplifier or virtual earth mixer.

An inverting amplifiers input is virtually at earth potential which provides an excellent mixer related application in audio mixing related work. As we can see different signals are added together across the negative terminal using different input resistors. There is no limit to the number of different signal inputs can be added. The gain of each different signal port is determined by the ratio of feedback resistor R2 and the input resistor of the particular channel. Also learn more about applications of the op-amp by following various op-amp based circuits.

This inverting op-amp configuration is also used in various filters like active low pass or active high pass filter.

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L2 7 1 Finite Open Loop Gain in Inverting Amplifier

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