# Investing amplifier gain 15

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Here's what the circuit's going to look like. Watch where it puts the plus sign is on the top on this one. And we're going to have a voltage source over here. This will be plus or minus V in, that's our input signal. And over on the output, we'll have V out, and it's hooked up this way.

The resistor, another resistor, to ground, and this goes back to the inverting input. Now we're going to look at this circuit and see what it does. Now we know that connected up here the power supply's hooked up to these points here, and the ground symbol is zero volts. And we want to analyze this circuit. And what do we know about this?

We know that V out equals some gain, I'll write the gain right there. A big, big number times V minus, sorry V plus minus V minus, and let's label that. V plus is this point right here, and V minus is this point right here.

And we also know that the currents, let's call them i plus and i minus, equals zero, and that's the currents going in here. This is i minus here, and that's i plus, and we know those are both zero. So now what I want to do it describe what's going on inside this triangle symbol in more detail by building a circuit model.

Alright, and a circuit model for an amplifier looks like this. We have V minus here, V plus here, so this is V in, and over on this side we have an, here's a new symbol that you haven't seen before. It's usually drawn as a diamond shape, and this is a voltage source, but it's a special kind of voltage source. It's called a voltage-dependent voltage source. And it's the same as a regular ideal voltage source except for one thing, it says that the V, in this case V out, equals gain times V plus minus V minus.

So the voltage here depends on the voltage somewhere else, and that's what makes it a voltage-dependent, that's what that means. So, we've just taken our gain expression here, added, drawn circuit diagram that represents our voltage expression for our circuit.

Now, specifically over here we've drawn an open circuit on V plus, and V minus so we know that those currents are zero. So this model, this circuit sketch represents our two properties of our Op-amp. So I'm going to take a second here and I'm going to draw the rest of our circuit surrounding this model, but I need a little bit more space.

So let's put in the rest of our circuit here. We had our voltage source, connected to V plus, and that's V in, and over here we had V out. Let's check, V out was connected to two resistors, and the bottom is connected to ground, and this was connected there. So what our goal is right now, we want to find V out as a function of V in. That's what we're shooting for. So let's see if we can do that. Let's give our resistors some names. Let's call this R1, and R2, our favorite names always, and now everything is labeled.

Now and we can label this point here, and this point we can call V minus, V minus. So that's our two unknowns. Our unknowns are V not, V out, and V minus, so let's see if we can find them. So what I'm going to do is just start writing some expressions for things that I know are true. Alright, that's what this Op-amp is telling us is true. Now what else do I know? Let's look at this resistor chain here. This resistor chain actually looks a lot like a voltage divider, and it's actually a very good voltage divider.

Remember we said this current here, what is this current here? It's zero. I can use the voltage divider expression that I know. As we saw with voltage dividers, we need to take a circuit's impedance into account when using it as part of a larger system of circuits. We need each successive circuit stage to have an input impedance at least 10 times greater than the output of the one preceeding it, to prevent loading. Since the inverting amplifier's input impedance is equal to R1, there may be times we'd be forced to pick unusually large resistors for our feedback loop, which can cause other problems.

The solution to our impedance worries lie in the Non-Inverting Amplifier, also made with an op-amp and negative feedback: Here, the signal in goes directly into the non-inverting input, which has a nearly infinite input impedance -- perfect for coupling with any previous stage. Also, the output impedance of the op-amp is nearly zero, which is ideal for connecting with whatever comes next in the circuit.

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So this circuit can be used to amplify small signals. Input Impedance Determination of input impedance of inverting amplifier is important. Input impdeance plays a very important role for cases like signal source loading, impedance matching while multiple stages are coupled etc.

From above we can see that the inverting input is at 0V potential virtual ground , so the input impedance is R1. Gain Bandwidth Product : The product of gain and bandwidth of an opamp appears to be a constant. You can get the Gain Bandwidth Product from the datasheet of the particular opamp you are using.

Op-Amps are popular for its versatility as they can be configured in many ways and can be used in different aspects. An op-amp circuit consists of few variables like bandwidth, input, and output impedance, gain margin etc. Different class of op-amps has different specifications depending on those variables. You can learn more about Op-amps by following our Op-amp circuits section.

An op-amp has two differential input pins and an output pin along with power pins. Those two differential input pins are inverting pin or Negative and Non-inverting pin or Positive. An op-amp amplifies the difference in voltage between this two input pins and provides the amplified output across its Vout or output pin.

Depending on the input type, op-amp can be classified as Inverting Amplifier or Non-inverting Amplifier. In previous Non-inverting op-amp tutorial , we have seen how to use the amplifier in a non-inverting configuration. In this tutorial, we will learn how to use op-amp in inverting configuration. Inverting Operational Amplifier Configuration It is called Inverting Amplifier because the op-amp changes the phase angle of the output signal exactly degrees out of phase with respect to input signal.

Same as like before, we use two external resistors to create feedback circuit and make a closed loop circuit across the amplifier. In the Non-inverting configuration , we provided positive feedback across the amplifier, but for inverting configuration, we produce negative feedback across the op-amp circuit. The R2 Resistor is the signal input resistor, and the R1 resistor is the feedback resistor. This feedback circuit forces the differential input voltage to almost zero. The voltage potential across inverting input is the same as the voltage potential of non-inverting input.

So, across the non-inverting input, a Virtual Earth summing point is created, which is in the same potential as the ground or Earth. The op-amp will act as a differential amplifier. So, In case of inverting op-amp, there are no current flows into the input terminal, also the input Voltage is equal to the feedback voltage across two resistors as they both share one common virtual ground source.

Due to the virtual ground, the input resistance of the op-amp is equal to the input resistor of the op-amp which is R2. This R2 has a relationship with closed loop gain and the gain can be set by the ratio of the external resistors used as feedback. As there are no current flow in the input terminal and the differential input voltage is zero, We can calculate the closed loop gain of op amp. Learn more about Op-amp consturction and its working by following the link.

Gain of Inverting Op-amp In the above image, two resistors R2 and R1 are shown, which are the voltage divider feedback resistors used along with inverting op-amp. R1 is the Feedback resistor Rf and R2 is the input resistor Rin. Op-amp Gain calculator can be used to calculate the gain of an inverting op-amp.

Practical Example of Inverting Amplifier In the above image, an op-amp configuration is shown, where two feedback resistors are providing necessary feedback in the op-amp. The resistor R2 which is the input resistor and R1 is the feedback resistor.

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