Umich greek life garp investing
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The funds I managed delivered above-benchmark, positive returns in every year. To put that another way, I never underperformed my benchmark in any year and never delivered a negative return for any client, even when the benchmark market index return was negative. My investment strategies all combined a quantitative approach with a deep understanding of the prevailing economics. By late , approaching the peak of the dot-com bubble, I found that I could no longer make sense of price behaviour in the financial markets.
So I decided to investigate how asset prices formed by way of a part-time PhD degree. Researching my PhD thesis, "Determinants of Prices and Spreads in Global Currency and Money Markets" University of Southampton, , convinced me that the primary driver of global asset prices was an unsustainable bubble in global credit.
Study and reflection led me to conclude that the prevailing consensus of neoclassical perma-equilibrium economics, and in particular, the ubiquitous dogma of efficient markets, had stopped the investment industry asking serious questions about valuation and about fundamental relationships. At the same time, I felt that the industry's emphasis had shifted away from investment analysis and towards sales.
For these reasons, I decided to step back from the investment management industry and devote my time to the academic study of how prices evolve in financial markets. In , I joined the University of Southampton. Throughout my career, I have sought to bridge the gap between academia and practice. In my view, both perspectives are necessary to understand finance. As an investment practitioner, I developed investment strategies from published academic research. I also managed sponsorship of academic research into finance related topics on behalf of investment management firms and investment banks.
Drawing on empirical evidence, this paper reviews some of the obstacles and barriers to college success for students from low-income and minority backgrounds and describes what institutions and faculty can do to create an environment of identity safety—where all students are valued, included, and can perform to their highest potential. We must find ways to improve the college outcomes of first-generation students, low-income students, and racial and ethnic minority students—all of whom are woefully underrepresented among the number of college graduates in America.
In his address to the Joint Session of Congress, President Barack Obama set a bold goal for the country: that by , America would once again have the highest proportion of college graduates in the world. To make this goal a reality, we must find ways to improve the college outcomes of first-generation students, low-income students, and racial and ethnic minority students—all of whom are woefully underrepresented among the number of college graduates in America. In , only One explanation is that the people within college and university settings professors, administrators, staff are biased in favor of individuals who belong to certain high-status groups over those who belong to low-status groups.
We propose that a focus on bias—while important—does not provide a sufficient antidote. In effect, the college environment itself often fails to promote a sense of inclusion, support, and identity safety for students from low-status groups, which would otherwise allow them to reach their social and academic potential.
This report will explore the different ways that colleges promote a sense of identity safety or identity threat for underrepresented students and propose ways that administrators and faculty members can construct campuses that allow all students to reach their social and academic potential. Sign up for updates.
Follow us The Many Types of Identity Threat When students belong to historically underrepresented and negatively stereotyped social groups, they are vigilant to situational cues and messages from institutions, faculty, and peers that signal whether they are valued, included, and respected.
Stereotype threat , for example, is a form of social identity threat that is experienced when people become concerned that they might confirm—or be expected by others to confirm— negative stereotypes about their group. When situational cues in the college environment suggest that it is possible one might be viewed through the lens of a negative stereotype, stereotype threat is triggered. Being a member of a negatively stereotyped group in educational contexts engenders many concerns that are triggered by situational cues in the local class and college environment.
By attending to the messages these cues send, we can identify points of intervention. What follows is an illustrative list of identity threat concerns experienced by students from underrepresented backgrounds and the cues that often trigger those concerns. Belonging Stigmatized individuals are vigilant for cues to belonging.
Belonging to valued social groups is a fundamental human need, 16 but a sense of inclusion is particularly important for stigmatized groups when stereotypes imply that they might be unsuitable to certain settings, such as rigorous academic classes.
Inanimate objects and posters can cue similar experiences of threat by primarily featuring the interests and faces of the majority , or by featuring minorities in stereotypical ways. Certain situational cues suggest that others may treat them as a curiosity or an exemplar of their group, rather than as an individual.
For example, without clear standards about how assignments will be evaluated, a minority student may interpret a poor grade or negative feedback as an instance of racial bias, rather than as feedback aimed to help her see how she can meet those stated standards. Indeed, research shows that ambiguous standards are more likely to engender shifting criteria and biased judgments. Similarly, difficult-to-navigate bureaucracies create disparities in things such as on-time course registration, choosing a major, and advancing toward a degree.
Students with college-educated parents have a built-in support network that can help them navigate campus bureaucracies that are otherwise experienced as closed, inaccessible, or unfair to first-generation students who lack such networks and consequential access to information.
Do they have my back? If a campus experiences an incident of bias or hate crime targeting a Muslim American student, for example, other Muslim students and even students from other stigmatized groups are likely to experience increased concerns about their own place and safety on campus. How campuses respond is critical to dispelling the understandable worry or suspicion that discrimination and devaluation is tolerated.
Stigmatized individuals are vigilant to cues about whether their group may be marginalized or pushed to the periphery of social environments—either physically or culturally segregated. Similarly, stigmatized individuals are vigilant to cues about whether their social identity is—or historically has been—excluded from particular academic and social environments as they strive to be seen as full and valued members of educational and social settings.
For example, even as greater numbers of Asian American students enroll in college, an Asian American student may face social exclusion and stereotypes that lead him or her to feel uncomfortable within certain social settings, such joining a traditional Greek organization or participating in other campus activities.
Taken together, we see that individuals from stigmatized social groups look to the situational cues in the local environment to assess whether they will be valued and respected or devalued and disrespected there. For example, an audit of the situational cues present in classrooms and public spaces could lead to greater inclusivity. However, several tangible aspects have been identified as especially detrimental for students who come from backgrounds that are underrepresented in colleges and universities.
Specifically, as described below, the institutional climate toward diversity, the cultural norms of administrators, competitive classrooms, and student body attitudes toward difference are all factors that influence academic outcomes for low-income, first-generation, and racial and ethnic minority students. Climate toward Diversity For students who perceive that the majority of their peers come from different backgrounds than their own, it becomes important to find signs that the educational institution, itself, values their presence and aims to support students from diverse backgrounds.
Even for institutions that have these underlying policies in place, students need to see visible reminders of their existence and to know that many other students take advantage of these opportunities. Without such reminders, students may come to question their ability to succeed in the academic context, even despite being previously high achievers.
Making individuals, offices, and policies that provide financial support for students more prominent on campus not only helps to connect students to important resources but also sends a message that the university is dedicated to fostering their success, conferring the psychological benefits of respect and value. Cultural Norms of Administrators At many colleges and universities, the administrative leadership tends to promote and reinforce values that reflect middle class and upper middle class priorities, such as independence, individual achievement, and self-exploration.
However, students who come from working-class backgrounds are likely to be more familiar with interdependent values and norms, such as being part of a community and learning with others. As a result, working-class students can experience a cultural mismatch that makes it difficult for them to successfully engage in academic tasks. When class exercises and exams are presented in ways that emphasize selection and competition, students with college-educated parents outperform first-generation students.
When the same exercises and exams are presented as opportunities for everyone to learn—without the threatening elements of selection and competition—first-generation students perform at the same level as students with college-educated parents. In many ways, peers set the tone for students who worry that they may be different and may not belong in college. During these critical moments, students might receive messages that being different is something to hide, conceal, or overcome.
On the other hand, they might learn that students come from many different backgrounds, and that those different perspectives can help to contribute to their success. Exposure to the latter message that embraces differences is a crucial factor that leads first-generation college students, in particular, to engage more fully in the college experience, seek out help when necessary, and eventually earn higher grades. How do we know whether these students are succeeding? What metrics are important to assess?
Not surprisingly, a higher GPA is a strong predictor of completing college, 31 being admitted into graduate school , 32 and securing desirable employment options. To the extent that these factors can be monitored, they serve as warning signs that students may be struggling in college.
In general, these measures can be categorized as motivation, student identity, and the cyclical effects of both. Motivation Before students take action and engage in the behaviors that lead them to succeed in their classes, they must feel some call or drive to go to class and engage in schoolwork. Students who reach the college level are likely to have already tapped into some source of motivation that, if uninterrupted, could guide their continued success in college.
However, college contexts are different from high school contexts, and students can find themselves distracted and demotivated for any number of reasons. Because of the link between motivation and performance , decreased motivation provides a useful early warning sign that students may be on the path to decreased performance. Additionally, goals are often divided into broad categories, including mastery goals and performance goals.
Further, a student might eagerly seek out opportunities to reach success an approach goal or may vigilantly attend to and attempt to avoid potential avenues of failure an avoidance goal. When students experience identity threat and unexpected institutional obstacles, it increases the likelihood that they become preoccupied with avoiding circumstances where they might perform poorly or exhibit a lack of ability. These performance and avoidance goals tend to take a negative toll on student well-being and success compared to goals that are focused on mastery and approach.
Additionally, students must maintain a sense of value and belief in education, and that the ultimate goal—earning high grades or being a successful college student—will precipitate some other tangible benefits, such as a higher income or increased happiness. All of these factors ultimately lead toward more successful behavioral plans and shape whether or not students choose to focus on school tasks, particularly during challenging or difficult times.
Student Identity Another piece of the motivation-behavior chain includes how a student thinks about who they are or who they are likely to become—in other words, their identity. For example, when a college student is in their childhood home, they are more likely to think of themselves as a member of their family or hometown.
On the other hand, when on the college campus, a student is more likely to think of themselves as a member of their college class, fraternity or sorority, or in terms of their college major. In addition to these group memberships and social identities, identity includes a more basic sense of the current attributes and traits that are salient to a person in that moment. When a college student encounters unexpected identity threats and institutional challenges, it reduces the likelihood that they feel connected to their identity as a college student, exhibit the traits of a high-achieving college student, and become a successful college graduate.
The psychological concerns that students contend with and the behavior that they enact can initiate a cycle that leads to increasingly positive or increasingly negative academic outcomes. Poor academic performance on an assignment or exam may further exacerbate belonging concerns and social disengagement, leading to increasingly negative academic outcomes a downward spiral.
On the other hand, a low-income student might perceive that their institution has a warm climate toward socioeconomic diversity, leading them to feel more closely identified with high achievement and more motivated to productively devote time to schoolwork. This motivation is likely to lead to earning high grades, which in turn feeds into an increasingly warm perception of the academic climate an upward spiral.
Thus, over time, seemingly small factors can multiply their effects on academic outcomes for college students. These practices directly address the identity threat concerns that students may experience as they navigate their college years.
Institutional and Administrative Strategies for Creating Identity Safety College administrators are the primary architects in shaping the initial student experience at their institutions, not only through determining how schools are marketed and students are admitted, but also through structures such as first-year orientation, housing assignments, student services, and especially, financial aid.
Remaining cognizant of inclusion and support for all students during the decision-making process in these key areas can help administrators create campuses where the entire student body can thrive. Psychological Concerns in the Transition to College. The transition to college is an especially vulnerable time for students as they adjust to being away from home, grapple with their new independence, figure out how to relate with and befriend new peers, and find a good balance between socializing and academics.
These programs are opportunities for a school to express its multicultural values and promote positive intergroup relations by creating activities and events that are financially accessible to everyone and that promote sustained and meaningful connection across groups. Intergroup contact theory and research suggests that when care is taken to construct diverse groups racially, ethnically, and with regard to gender, sexuality, disability, and income , students are more likely to develop cross-group friendships and emerge from the contact experience with diminished out-group biases and prejudice.
Dispelling this sense about others fitting in effortlessly—known as pluralistic ignorance—is one of the central messages of a successful social psychological intervention called the Social Belonging Intervention. Some of the practices with the greatest impact can come from increasing investment and emphasis on existing policies, practices, and resources that fall within the realm of financial aid. Without a combination of grants, loans, and work-study opportunities, many students are simply unable to afford the cost of attending college.
These resources can carry additional value as identity safety cues that signal to students from underrepresented groups that the university is a place where they belong and that it is committed to supporting the needs of students from many different backgrounds. Work-study opportunities, in particular, not only provide resources and signal identity safety, but they also help to facilitate a greater connection to campus for students.
Without work-study opportunities, many students would spend a greater amount of their time working off campus, weakening their ties to the campus community and college experience. That said, some work-study positions may feel stigmatizing and exclusionary to students as they find themselves, for example, working in the dining hall while their peers are having fun. Universities would be wise to create work-study opportunities that enrich students intellectually—as well as financially. In this vein, many research labs provide opportunities for work-study students to be employed as research assistants, gaining valuable educational experience and connecting with faculty members, graduate student role models, and intellectually engaged peers.
By gaining these experiences and creating strong mentoring relationships that translate into access to academic networks and strong letters of recommendation, these work-study opportunities open pathways to graduate school. Thus, redoubling the commitment to work-study opportunities and other financial aid resources confers several tangible benefits to students from low-income and first-generation backgrounds. Signals and Cues of Inclusion. There are many other ways that universities can signal to students that their diverse cultural backgrounds are valued and can be leveraged as a resource, rather than considered a deficit or ignored altogether.
However, colorblindness leads to greater racial bias on the part of majority group members and decreased engagement of minority group members. Universities can also signal that they acknowledge and value diversity through their missions and curricula. A mission that expands the boundaries of the university and engages with the greater community provides the opportunity for students from a wider range of backgrounds to feel more genuinely connected to the academic institution itself.
Even course offerings should be regularly re-evaluated to determine whether they reflect an increasingly diverse society and reach a representative array of topics and issues relevant to students and the world that they inhabit. In addition to a multicultural approach, in general, there are specific cultural themes that can be incorporated into the fabric of colleges and universities in order to promote success for a wider range of students.
Most universities value and prioritize themes of independence and self-determination over interdependence and connection. A greater inclusion of interdependence experiences in classroom and extracurricular activities signals to disadvantaged students that their preferred and familiar form of engaging with the world around them is valued and appreciated.
Finally, institutions must maintain an ongoing commitment to valuing and protecting students who come from underrepresented groups. Students are vigilant for signals the university sends regarding the value they place on diversity and inclusion and notice when policies and mission statements do not line up with treatment and behavior. For example, it is not uncommon for students, colleges, and universities to contend with issues of harassment, bullying, and discrimination, either by students, faculty, or staff.
Institutions should respond quickly, transparently, and seriously to behaviors that pose the risk of confirming to underrepresented groups their worst fears regarding their value and safety within the college community.
Information suppression, delays, and minor punishments create ambiguity about the value of underrepresented groups and the norms for behavior within a university and college context. Institutions should engage in practices that make it clear that there are severe consequences for these types of behaviors and include underrepresented groups in designing policies and procedures that proactively anticipate and address these dangerous and demoralizing behaviors.
Faculty Strategies and Practices for Creating Identity Safety Members of the faculty spend more time with students than any other college employees, and so they have numerous opportunities to shape student experiences through day-to-day interactions, both in the classroom and via coursework.
Create Unambiguous and Transparent Standards and Procedures. Perhaps the most explicit approach to establishing an identity safe climate in the college classroom is for faculty to communicate clear expectations and procedures for evaluation. To extend this philosophy of transparency even further, faculty can collect anonymous feedback on the course during the academic term rather than after its completion.
Foster a Norm of Cooperation. Another way that faculty can create an identity safe climate in their classroom is through fostering norms of cooperation.
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Enhance staff ability to support the Greek Community and mission of the University. Greek Life Strategic Goals and Objectives 1. These memberships are often appealing because of their legendary commitments to friendship, sisterhood, brotherhood, and loyalty1.
Along with membership comes an expectation to uphold the ritual, values, mission, and aims of the respective organization. Many shared values within our community include service, leadership, scholarship, friendship, respect, human dignity, and a lifelong commitment to the organization. Sorority rituals: Rites of passages and their impact on contemporary sorority women. Objectives Provide opportunities for students to reflect on the purpose and values of their organization.
Challenge students to draw parallels between the stated organizational values and their daily actions. Encourage chapters to develop and maintain a healthy status and healthy relationships A tradition since , it is important to cultivate a community and chapters that will allow Greek Life to be a vital part of the University of Michigan for the next years. It should be one that creates lasting memories, fosters a lifelong commitment to loyalty, service, and learning, and is exciting and fun.
Healthy chapters promote ideals of responsibility and citizenship. Members feel empowered to intervene and create change in the best interest of individuals and the chapter as a whole. Objectives Support recruitment and intake activities to maximize success. Address issues of attrition and inactivity. Emphasize the value of lifelong membership. Encourage chapters to explore opportunities that have the potential to enhance their chapter experience. Help students reflect on and aspire to the benefits of a healthy chapter.
The opportunity to build a stronger sense of community within Greek Life is an exciting and dynamic area of work. As the community develops, focusing efforts around respect, inclusion, and intercultural maturity will be encouraged and supported in order to develop global citizens. In times of increased global interdependence, producing inter-culturally competent citizens who can engage in informed, ethical decision making when confronted with problems that involve a diversity of perspectives is becoming an urgent educational priority1.
Diversity and higher education: Theory and impact on student outcomes. Harvard Educational Review, 72 3 , Objectives Create a community that instills a sense of belonging within chapters and the larger Greek Community. Establish our community as a safe and welcoming space for all students where actions demonstrate respect for all.
Increase collaboration and education among the four councils. Students must take ownership for the effectiveness and image of their community and recognize how their actions and methods of governance impact Greek Life and the University of Michigan. The Greek Community at Michigan values student self-governance as a way to promote ownership of our council and chapter operations. To assure that self-governance is fulfilling its commitment to function at the highest possible level of integrity and accountability, a new method for acknowledging chapters that are doing good work as well as showing improvement will be implemented.
The expectations will be set by students to hold each other accountable for what they believe are appropriate expectations for chapter performance. Through benchmarking with peer institutions and identifying strong programs that currently exist, students will be advised and supported by stakeholders as they structure the program to fit the community needs. This will help identify chapters that are exceeding, meeting, and not meeting expectations. Expectations will include, but are not limited to, administrative obligations SOAR registration; updated membership, officer, and advisor lists; initiation information; payment of dues, other necessary paperwork ; academic achievement; service involvement; management of risk; new member and other educational programming participation; personal health and wellness; and policy compliance.
Develop plans for improvement. Recognize the rights and responsibilities that come with self-governance. This responsibility includes the need to focus on individual elements of wellness as well as concentrate efforts on the holistic development of the student. It is not only essential that students are provided with support and resources regarding physical, mental, academic, emotional, and spiritual well-being, but that they recognize the need to address these concerns within their chapter and community.
In giving attention to the various elements of wellness, risk reduction and intervention in certain behaviors can occur. Through the bonds of brotherhood and sisterhood, fraternities and sororities have the unique opportunity to influence and have a direct impact on each other.
Through chapter initiatives, as well as individual action, behaviors can be impacted. Miller, D. The safety of our members, potential new members, and guests is of extreme importance to our community. Alcohol use, hazing activities, personal safety, respect, civility and facility maintenance are the primary areas on which we need to focus. Using their experience and expertise, we can collaboratively develop tools and resources that help minimize and eliminate risk from our community.
There are many opportunities for education and programming that focus on best practices and creative strategies to eliminate risky behavior among members and within chapters. Access to, awareness of, and understanding of policies and standards to manage risk are critical in combating reoccurring issues and violations of policies. The university will no longer recognize the Sigma Alpha Mu fraternity and has placed the Sigma Delta Tau sorority on disciplinary suspension.
Sigma Delta Tau sorority will be suspended for two years. She also accepted the recommendations of the Greek Activities Review Panel, the student-led judiciary body. The university has asked the national office of Sigma Alpha Mu to revoke the charter of the U-M chapter and placed additional sanctions on the fraternity before it could again become of part of Greek Life on campus. The university informed the student leaders of the affected fraternities and sororities today by providing them letters that outline the sanctions.
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